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Healthy School Communities

A concussion is a brain injury caused by a sudden head movement. Concussions present serious risks and can cause permanent brain damage if not treated correctly. However, with proper identification and management, a concussion is treatable.

When managing a concussion, remember the 4 R’s:

  • RECOGNIZE – Concussion signs and symptoms can appear more than 48 hours after the injury. A student does not have to lose consciousness to have experienced a concussion. Signs and symptoms may include, among others:
Symptoms Signs
Headache Poor coordination
Dizziness Slurred speech
Light sensitivity Delayed responses
Fatigue Vacant share
Confusion Personality change
Nausea Sleep disturbance
  • REMOVE – If a student shows signs of concussion, remove them from the current activity.
  • REFER – A student with a suspected concussion should be referred to and evaluated by a licensed healthcare professional as soon as possible.
  • RETURN – Return to school and then to sport and play based on the recommendations of a licensed healthcare professional

For more tools, resources, and information, visit

Consult the safety guidelines or concussion policies in your province/territory or jurisdiction for additional protocol. 

Concussion content provided in partnership with: