Modifications can be made to a variety of activity components to ensure inclusion. The STEP framework describes four main activity components—space, task, equipment, and people—that can be modified to meet the needs of each individual participant and provide a supportive learning environment (Kiuppis, 2018). As you plan activities, consider how everyone can be involved and how to modify or adapt the activities to ensure the full inclusion of all.
● Where the activity is happening?
• Modify the physical space of the activity to match the skill level of participants and remove obstacles and distractions.
● What is happening?
• Modify the focus, difficulty, instructions, or skills of the task to provide participants with variation, creativity, and individualized progression.
• Instructions can be modified to incorporate visual, tactile, and verbal cues (e.g., a picture communication system or designated auditory or visual signals).
● What is being used?
● Modify the purpose, type, and use of equipment.
● Specialized equipment is available, but it is also easy to modify equipment if you are creative (e.g., balls with textures or sounds, plumbing pipe to use as ramps for throwing).
● Who is involved?
• Modify the structure and formation of participant groupings based on their abilities.
• Rules can be modified to allow for different levels of participation within the same task.
Kiuppis, F. (2018). Inclusion in sport: disability and participation, Sport in Society, 21(1), 4-21. DOI: 10.1080/17430437.2016.1225882